THE BALANCE OF ENERGY AND PROTEINS RATION IN THREE TYPES OF LOCAL CHICKENS GROWTH PHASES\n\nAbun1, Sjafril DARANA1, Wiwin TANWIRIAH1, Heni INDRIJANI1, Indrawati YUDHA ASMARA1, and Taslim1 \n\n1Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jalan Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM. 21, 45363, Sumedang-West Java, Indonesia, (phone) +6222 7798241, (fax) +6222 7798212.\n\nCorresponding author email: firstname.lastname@example.org; \nabun_hasbuna.fapet @ yahoo.co.id\n\n\nABSTRACT\nThere are various types of local chickens in Indonesia, including Sentul-Warso Chicken, Chicken Kampung-Unggul, and Chicken Local-Jimy. The chickens are of varying growth and thus different require of nutrients balance. The research was conducted in February to April 2017 at Test Farm, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, University of Padjadjaran, Sumedang, West Java-Indonesia. The objective of the study was to obtain an appropriate energy-protein balance in all three local chickens by measuring the Balance of Protein Efficiency. Research using experimental method in laboratory. The experimental design used was a complete randomized design, consisting of five treatment rations with different energy and protein levels and each repeated four times. Treatment consisted of: R1 = ME 2750 kcal / kg and CP 15% (183: 1); R2 = ME 2750 kcal / kg and CP 17% (162: 1); R3 = ME 2750 kcal / kg and CP 19% (145: 1); R4 = ME 2950 kcal / kg and CP 15% (197: 1); And R5 = ME 2950 kcal / kg and CP 17% (174: 1). The data were analyzed by variance and the differences between treatments were tested by Duncan\'s multiple-range test. The result of the research obtained the balance of energy-protein of chicken ration of local growth pase for Chicken Sentul-Warso ranged between 162 - 197 (medium level), Chicken Kampung-Unggul at level 183 (narrow level), and Chicken Local Jimy ranged from 145 - 197 (Level of large area). The Balance of Protein Efficiency Value for Sentul-Warso Chicken ranges from 1.96-2.25, Chicken Kampung-Unggul ranges from 1.65 to 2.20, and Chicken Local-Jimy ranges from 1.93 - 2.20. \n\nKeywords: Energy-protein balance, rations, local chicken, protein efficiency ratio, growth
Social trust is one of the crucial aspects of human relationship which underlying the participation and cooperation among people of communities. Social trust accelerates the participation in economics, social, political and cultural fields and also enhances people inclination to interact with variety groups inside the society. In absence of trust, there is no chance to observe democratic system, social stability, balance and solidarity inside the communities. Media is one of the major factors of developing social trust which can enhance or decrease the trust between audiences by presenting an elegant or hideous images, therefore the comparison between paper and social media and their relationships with the level of social trust was carried out in this paper. The age of Tehrani respondents as our statistical society ranged from 18 to 60 years old in our survey and the sample based on Cochran formula obtained 356. Sampling was carried out randomly which its validity was approved by authorities and its reliability was estimated 0.74% which calculated by Cronbach’s alpha. Results indicate that there is direct relationship between average of social trust point and the rate of using the paper media although has an inverse relationship with social trust. The level of trust among males who use paper media are higher than females yet but it is completely vice versa in social media. To prompt the social trust, the media should recognize the issues which people are interest in, their needs and propensities. Accordingly it seems to be essential to analyze the content of social media to governmental domains approaches to public areas thus social trust will mount.